October CVCA Newsletter
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Catawba Valley Cattlemen’s Association
(Eat Hamburgers, and Learn Cattle on the 2nd Tuesday of this month)
This month’s meeting is on Tuesday, 6:30 p.m., October 12, 2021
Location: Cooperative Extension Office, ARC Building
GPS address: 1175 South Brady Ave., Newton, NC 28658
6:30 Short Business Meeting, 6:45 Educational Program
5:30 p.m. – Hamburgers served
6:30 p.m. – Business Meeting: Mr. Brandon Bowman, President and Dr. Amanda Whitener, Treasurer.
6:45 p.m. – Beyond the Syringe, Impacts on Animal Health
Speaker: Mark Alley, DVM
8:00 p.m. – Meeting adjourned
Ø Family day trip is October 9 to Yon family farms in Ridge Springs, SC. This Saturday!!! Call Brandon or Dr. Amanda and COME ALONG! All Are welcome.
Ø Fall BBQ is CANCELED.
Ø Cooking for the tractor pull on October 23rd will need volunteers. Be prepared to sign your name to work in at least one of these 3: Setup, Selling, or Cleanup. Specific times will be included on the sign-up sheet also (so you will know when to arrive and then feel free to go and enjoy the Pull!)
Two questions have been asked of me. First, “Why even give a vaccine?” Answer: Having an animal is like owning an apartment complex. You know the apartment complex is built of wood and needs a sprinkler system installed but it cost extra to install so it gets skipped which is like not bother to give animals a vaccine. Some diseases(fires) cannot be avoided in livestock production. For example, veterinarians always recommend Blackleg vaccine in all cattle even when kept on the farm since the only symptom is a dead animal within 24 hours of infection. Blackleg lives in the soil in most of NC. Since researchers have not found a way to eradicate it, the cattle producer can choose a live healthy animal by vaccination or a dead cow (if it ever gets exposed to Blackleg) simply due to the choice of a vaccine given or not given.
The other question. “Which is best … Modified-live vaccine (MLV) versus killed vaccines?” First let’s define these two terms. A live vaccine contains bacteria or a virus that has been modified (MLV). This means they’ve lost their disease-causing ability (attenuated) or are administered by a route that prevents them from causing clinical disease although the bacteria or virus is still alive. Killed vaccines are just what the name says – a solution of bacteria or virus which was attenuated (lost their disease-causing ability) and results in their death. With any vaccine, the trick is to have a strain of an organisms mimic their disease-causing cousins closely enough that the animal’s active immune system will be ready to recognize the disease-causing pathogen. Then, when infection occurs, it either will be interrupted before disease results, or the severity of the resulting disease will be reduced. Note that vaccines can’t prevent infection. The offending pathogen must get inside the body to be extinguished by the vaccine-stimulated active immune system. Like a firewall in an apartment complex, the body has firewalls to prevent infection. This system is called the “innate immune system” For example, bacteria that causes pneumonia must first overcome the mucous and cilia lining the upper airways of the lungs. Then they must get past the defense cells in the lower airways, and finally penetrate the respiratory tract membranes. If the bacteria (the fire) are unable to break through all this – the infection, (fire) is prevented from moving into the next area of the body (apartment complex) and vaccine- stimulated immunity system (Sprinkler system) will not be necessary. Just as an apartment complex firewall keeps the fire out of the next section of apartments, that section’s sprinkler system will not be activated since the fire could not get through the firewall.
“MLV” and “killed vaccine” are like two types of sprinkler systems or sprinkler heads which have their individual advantages and disadvantages. Some positive attributes of MLV vaccines include: 1) A strong, long-lasting immune response that is achieved with fewer doses. 2) Virus vaccines may quickly stimulate antiviral protection. 3) Less chance of allergic reactions. Some positive attributes of killed vaccines include: 1) More stable on storage. 2) Unlikely to contain traces of contaminating vaccine.
The bottom line, in the apartment complex example, was the sprinkler installed and if it was – did the plumber turn the water on to make the sprinkler heads work when a fire might occur? What type of sprinkler system did he use? The bottom line for the vaccinations to work – did the animals have a low stress and healthy environment so their bodies are prepared to produce the antigens to fight off the disease when the vaccinations are given? (Apartment example: system installed correctly & water available to fight the fire)
Since this is occurring at a microscopic level, vaccinations need to be tested in the field where stress is an everyday occurrence. Ultimate determination of a vaccine’s merits comes from controlled tests conducted under field conditions similar to the producer’s farm setting. Evaluating a vaccine’s effectiveness is very difficult because so many management factors can overwhelm a vaccine’s effect. Specific vaccine recommendations should be made by a veterinarian familiar with the disease problems they typically experience on farms in the community, and who is familiar with your operation, your type of cattle, and your management style. In conclusion, vaccine choice will depend on the targeted pathogen as well as the nature of the relationship between the animal, pathogen, and vaccine. Dr. Mark Alley will focus on how vaccinations work in the body.
If you want to listen via Zoom, please call or text by Tuesday, 10 a.m. and will set up a Zoom meeting number and password. If feeling sick, please stay home and listen by computer.